Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to filter the blood by eliminating bad substances such as urea or creatinine, for example, that can build up in the body when the kidneys are not working well.
Renal failure may be acute or chronic, and acute renal failure is characterized by a rapid reduction in renal function, and chronic loss of function of the kidneys is caused by factors such as dehydration, urinary tract infection, hypertension, or urine obstruction. example.
Generally, acute renal failure is curable, but chronic renal failure is not always curable and treatment requires hemodialysis or kidney transplantation to improve the patient’s quality of life and promote well-being.
Symptoms of kidney failure
Renal failure can manifest itself through various symptoms because it depends on whether it is acute or chronic.
Signs of acute renal failure:
- Little urine, dark yellow and strongly smelling;
- Easy fatigue and shortness of breath;
- Pain in the lower back, which is where the kidneys are located;
- Swelling of the legs and feet;
- Easy fatigue with shortness of breath;
- High pressure;
- Fever greater than 39ºC;
- Coughing up blood;
- Lack of appetite and presence of nausea and vomiting;
- Small lumps on the skin.
In addition, changes in blood and urine tests may occur, with the presence of proteins in the urine and blood test, elevated urea, creatinine and potassium values and sodium below normal value. To know how the diagnosis is made read Acute kidney failure .
Signs of chronic renal failure:
- The urge to urinate frequently, especially at night, waking up to urinate;
- Urine with strong odor and foam;
- Very high blood pressure that can cause stroke or heart failure;
- Sensation of very high body weight;
- Tremors mostly on hands;
- Severe tiredness;
- Weak muscles;
- Frequent cramps;
- Tingling in the hands and feet;
- Loss of sensation;
- Yellowish skin;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Development of a small white layer on the skin, similar to dust, because urea that is high crystallizes in sweat.
When observing these symptoms it is advised an appointment with a nephrologist doctor so that he can request examinations to diagnose the renal failure and indicate the appropriate treatment. Diagnosis can be made based on symptoms and tests such as ultrasound, MRI, computed tomography, and blood and urine tests such as creatinine, urea, and potassium.
The most common causes of acute and chronic renal failure may occur due to:
- Reduced amount of blood in the kidney due to dehydration, poor kidney function or low blood pressure;
- Injury of the kidneys due to kidney stones or toxic substances like medicines;
- Interruption of urine passage , caused by enlarged prostate or presence of tumor.